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史蒂夫·哈蒙独家中文博客

互联网风投与管理者,创业企业是谷歌Adsense概念创造者之一

 
 
 

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我是美国风投创始人和管理合作伙伴,曾担任过Jupiter Media公司VP,Paul Kagan Associates机构分析师,我的创业企业Applied Semantics2003年被谷歌收购,是谷歌Adsense概念创造者之一。现着重投资互联网领域,对中国互联网和网络新媒体有深刻研究。我写的《零重力1.0》和《零重力2.0》成为彭博社最畅销书籍,比尔盖茨、杨致远也读过我写的商业报告。在中国,我给网易科技独家供稿。hapn.cool try it!

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病毒式营销的神话:馅饼是用来变现的  

2009-08-26 09:20:45|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

病毒式营销:天上掉馅饼

 

  汉堡店赠送免费汉堡,最后每天顾客500万。

 

病毒式营销的神话:馅饼是用来变现的 - Steve Harmon  - 史蒂夫·哈蒙独家中文博客

汽车制造公司则每月为100万人口送出免费混合燃料。

银行也赠送每位跨进大门的顾客100美元。

 

还有网络公司也提供免费网络工具,受众达到100万。

病毒式营销的神话:馅饼是用来变现的 - Steve Harmon  - 史蒂夫·哈蒙独家中文博客

就以销售部来说,这些都可以视作“病毒式”营销的成功范例。

不过问题就在于,除非这些公司能够从这些营销方式当中获利,否则一切努力都是徒劳。

也就是说,现在我们应该好好澄清“病毒式营销”这个概念了。

15年内,我目睹了数百家公司企图以此为基础发展业务,然而,除非公司另有创收模式,否则病毒式营销仅仅是烧钱游戏而已。

这就是为什么许多公司,诸如YouTube都急于将其资产变现。每天播放几亿遍的视频,YouTube的成本远大于利润。只要懂得分析宽带成本,就会知道其模式颇具挑战性。那,YouTube是消费者的胜利?正是。是商业的胜利?非也。

病毒式营销和创收服务不分伯仲,处理好其关系正是挑战所在,也正是许多公司失败所在。

大部分都会选择Ad Sense的模式作为其创收计划。我早些时候投资过Ad Sense(在其被谷歌收购之前),因此熟谙此理。Ad Sense模式对个体来说诚然无可挑剔,但是却不适合大型公司。为什么呢?广告(任何广告都是如此)的点击率少得可怜,有1%的点击率就已经是出色了,通常情况,也就是0.001%左右。谷歌作为广告的平台,自然是Ad Sense模式的赢家,但你却不是。

病毒式营销的神话:馅饼是用来变现的 - Steve Harmon  - 史蒂夫·哈蒙独家中文博客

  病毒式营销与公司创收相互均衡的典范当属Craigslist。虽然到目前为止,我对Craigslist还不是太感冒,它确实可以一边免费发布分类广告,一边又对其它项目收费,比如求职以及租房广告等等。同时,Craig的过人之处还在于他聘用的员工只有30人不到。如果他早些时候走上了“病毒式营销”的不归路,并且使用Ad Sense模式亦或其它任何广告模式,今天的Craigslist将不复存在。该免费的地方免费,该收费的收费,这样就为他带来了每月100万美元的利润,同时,他也完全可以在保证服务质量的前提下提升公司利润。不过,这是Craig得事了,我的公司发展理念和免费无关。

  一般人看到有些营销方式也是颇具人气,于是也称之为病毒式营销。错矣。

  比如说,eBayAOL合作并在后者平台上在线拍卖之后才改变了发展滞缓的问题。这使把eBay打进了主流消费者在线空间。

  谷歌也总是被人们誉为病毒式营销巨大的胜利。不过,事实却是,它是业务开发的成功,而并非病毒式营销的成功。谷歌和AOL,雅虎达成协议,后两者用谷歌作为其搜索引擎。这和病毒式毫无关系,因为谷歌业务开发专员花了一年时间才让雅虎最后开了金口。因此,成功只是在于坚持。

  我们再回头看看病毒式营销这个概念的鼻祖。在我看来,应该是Netscape。在1995Netscape刚开始推出的时候,一个月内下载量就达到了100万。在此之前的Mosaic也是病毒式营销的成功范例。这就是为什么Kleiner Perkins注资Netscape。曾经一度,Netscape也经销起了软件(服务器和客户)。它也把自己主页上的链接卖给了雅虎和其他用金钱买客户的搜索引擎(这可不是病毒式了)。

病毒式营销的神话:馅饼是用来变现的 - Steve Harmon  - 史蒂夫·哈蒙独家中文博客

  Hotmail也被誉为是第一例成功的病毒式营销之一。我记得,它刚起步的时候,增长率和我公司的增长率相似。实在是难以置信。很快,微软就是以4亿美元收购了hotmail,以期启动自己的顾客网络服务机制,比如MSN

病毒式营销的神话:馅饼是用来变现的 - Steve Harmon  - 史蒂夫·哈蒙独家中文博客

  无论如何,我们要考虑的不是营销方式是否是病毒式,而是要考虑建立业务时是不是有自己的方式从顾客身上盈利。如果你想要自己的业务枝繁叶茂,长盛不衰,那么,你就必须要考虑如何平衡病毒式营销,业务开发以及从顾客身上盈利之间的关系。

 

注:本文为哈蒙为网易科技博客独家供稿,转载请注明:网易科技博客。

 

The Myth Of Viral Marketing: Free Isn't Free, It Needs To Be Monetized

A hamburger restaurant gives away free hamburgers and fries daily to
over 5 million people.

病毒式营销的神话:馅饼是用来变现的 - Steve Harmon  - 史蒂夫·哈蒙独家中文博客

A car maker gives away 1 million hybrids per month.

A bank gives out $100 to everyone that walks in the door.

A Web company offers a free widget that's installed by 1 million users.

病毒式营销的神话:馅饼是用来变现的 - Steve Harmon  - 史蒂夫·哈蒙独家中文博客

All of these could be considered "viral" marketing successes --
according to the marketing department.

The problem is that unless these companies can turn these campaigns into
revenue and earnings then it's all for naught.

In other words, it's time to debunk the notion of "viral marketing."

I've seen hundreds of companies in the past 15 years try and build
businesses on this notion. Yet unless the business has an underlying
revenue model then being viral is basically throwing money out the door.

That's why companies such as YouTube have struggled to monetize their
asset. Streaming videos hundreds of millions of times per day simply
costs more than YouTube is able to generate. Anyone doing analysis on
bandwidth costs would find their model challenging. YouTube a consumer
success? Yes. A *commercial* success? No.

病毒式营销的神话:馅饼是用来变现的 - Steve Harmon  - 史蒂夫·哈蒙独家中文博客

The challenge is to balance viral with revenue making services, and
that's where many fail.

Most opt for some form of "let's plug in Ad Sense" as their revenue
plan. I was an early investor in Ad Sense (before Google acquired it)
and know it well. Ad Sense is great for individuals but not a revenue
strategy for a large-scale business. Why? Click throughs on ads (any
ads) are dismal. Great would be 1% click through. Most likely it's
..001%. The winner in Ad Sense is Google as the bookmaker for ads, not
you.

A good example of a company that has figured out viral and revenue is
Craigslist. Now I'm not a big fan of Craigslist's look and feel but he
has figured out a way to offer up free classifieds and charge for a few
things such as job postings and apartment listings. Craig also has been
smart in keeping staffing to under 30 people. Had he tried to "go viral"
and plug in Ad Sense or any advertising years ago it may have tanked his
service. He kept it free and charged where he could, generating more
than $1 million per month. He could get a lot more without compromising
the service also. But that's for Craig to figure out, my business
development ideas aren't free.

Casual observers will also see something widespread in usage and call it
viral. Not so.

For example, eBay was moving along at a slow pace until it landed a deal
with AOL to be the auctions on AOL. That one deal propelled eBay into
the mainstream consumer space online.

Google is often hailed as a huge viral success. Yet it actually was
built by business development (not viral marketing). Google struck deals
with AOL and Yahoo that made Google the search provider on those sites.
Not viral. It took Google's biz dev guy 1 year to get Yahoo to say yes.
1 year! that's the kind of persistence it takes to win.

Going back to the beginning of the viral notion. In my book it's
Netscape. Over 1 million software downloads in a month back when it
first launched (1995). And Mosaic before that was also a viral success.
That's why Kleiner Perkins invested in Netscape. Download rate. And, for
awhile, Netscape became a business selling software (server and client).
It also sold links on its homepage to Yahoo and other search engines
that also bought exposure to consumers (again, not viral).

病毒式营销的神话:馅饼是用来变现的 - Steve Harmon  - 史蒂夫·哈蒙独家中文博客

Hotmail is cited as one of the first viral successes. I remember its
founder sharing the growth rate with me when it first began.  It was
incredible. Microsoft soon acquired Hotmail for $400 million in a bid to
jump start its own consumer Internet services such as MSN. So there was
a value in reach for Microsoft as opposed to a revenue/earnings
acquisition.
病毒式营销的神话:馅饼是用来变现的 - Steve Harmon  - 史蒂夫·哈蒙独家中文博客
At the end of the day (beginning, too) it's not how viral something is
as much as how do you build a business with a clear way to monetize
customers. There needs to be a balance between viral, business
development and ways to monetize the customer base if you want to build
a scalable and long-lasting business.


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